Group interaction in the ‘outdoor classroom’: the process of learning in outdoor education (A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy)

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dc.contributor.author Stan, Ina Teodora
dc.date.accessioned 2012-05-03T13:50:08Z
dc.date.available 2012-05-03T13:50:08Z
dc.date.issued 2012-05-03
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/250
dc.description.abstract This research is concerned with the educational process within an outdoor centre involving groups of primary school children. It studies group interaction between the participants in a natural setting by taking a holistic approach, giving an account of their outdoor learning experience in the context of a group. It appears that there is little focus on groups in the outdoors, even though most outdoor programmes involve groups. Most of the research done on groups is quantitative and laboratory based. Such traditional approaches have been challenged, as empirical limitations and theoretical problems have been identified. It is argued that a study of group interactions within a natural environment, such as the outdoor classroom, would allow for a more insightful understanding of the phenomena involved, and it could also shed light on the outdoor educational process, which has been neglected by research in outdoor education. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were used as part of an ethnographic approach. This enabled the collection of varied data, which resulted in a thick description of the phenomena explored. The findings show that the concept of team building is central to the philosophy of the outdoor centre and of its staff. The activities, which are used as learning tools, are group orientated. Teamwork is seen as essential for the learning experience at the outdoor centre. The study also revealed that the different approaches of the participants influenced the way learning was constructed. The two main themes that have emerged were empowerment and control. The empowering approaches offered support and encouragement to the participants, allowing for collaboration and cooperation to exist between them, which enabled learning to be more effective. The controlling approaches were characterised by a lack of dialogue between the participants, which interfered with the learning experience, by not creating an environment where the participants could work together as a group. A social aspect of learning was thus identified, which emphasised the importance of viewing learning as a joint process. The research shows that a well-designed process does not always result in the participants achieving the ‘desired learning outcomes’. The teachers/facilitators need to be aware of the impact that their approach may have on the learning experience of the participants. en_US
dc.subject Outdoor education en_US
dc.subject Education en_US
dc.subject Group interaction en_US
dc.subject Outdoor classroom en_US
dc.subject Learning styles en_US
dc.subject Primary school education en_US
dc.subject Group interaction en_US
dc.subject Team building en_US
dc.subject Empowerment en_US
dc.subject Learning experience en_US
dc.title Group interaction in the ‘outdoor classroom’: the process of learning in outdoor education (A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy) en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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